Tunnels are dug in various types of materials varying from soft clay to hard rock. The method of tunnel construction depends on many factors as the ground conditions, the ground water conditions, the length and diameter of the tunnel drive, the depth of the tunnel, the logistics of supporting the tunnel excavation, the final use and shape of the tunnel and appropriate risk management. Concrete is used to provide support for tunnels through weak rock, stabilizing the rock by filling crack and holes. It also covers the surface, preventing water access. Lining with concrete is mainly used for construction of tunnels with most complex structure and big cross-section. It’s also widely used for shield tunneling, mainly in subway tunnels.
In a complex business like Mining, exploration, construction and operations are all considerable investments and filled with challenges. An affordable answer to these concerns were given by the concrete, in support of structures (columns, ceiling and retaining walls), floors, channels and rocks, pipes, resulting in increased profitability and less interruptions.